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physicaltherapy: 05 Feb : 06:54 pm

Is there anyone who has gone through CWT6 or type 1 evaluation with FCCPT?
If so, kindly let me know from where can the following deficiencies be fulfilled?
1. History
2. Systems Review
3. Findings that warrant referral
4. Supervision of support staff
5. Documentation

nani: 28 Sep : 04:31 am

plz pleasec tell me where to do phd in india

Nikhilphysio: 02 Jun : 03:55 am

I am working as physiotherapist in Shalby hospital ahmedabad for 4 years. I have passed out from Rajiv gandhi university of health and sciences Bangalore. I want to apply for Newzealand physiotherapy board registration so anyone there from India who got registered as physiotherapist in new zealand please help me.

Arun: 10 May : 12:36 am

Hi Priyank, welcome. Feel free to go through these forum threads returned by search [link]

Priyank: 09 May : 10:28 pm

Hi..need advice. What are the options in Australia after MPT?

Meniscus of the Knee

on Sunday 02 October 2005
by http://physioguy.com author list
in article > Public Awareness

KneeThe menisci (singular: meniscus) are often referred to as the "cartilage" of the knee joint. In each knee, there exists a medial (inside) meniscus and lateral (outside) meniscus. They are sandwiched in between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone).

The term cartilage, however, is more often reserved for the articular surfaces of the bones. These bony surfaces are covered by a relatively thin layer of hard articular cartilage called hyaline cartilage. The menisci are not as hard as the articular cartilage because menisci are actually composed of fibrocartilage. Fibrocartilage is more flexible and less hard than the articular cartilage.

Injuries to the meniscus are often the result of direct or indirect trauma in a weight-bearing position (ie: foot planted on the ground)

ANATOMYKneeThere are two menisci in the knee. They are attached to the tibia bone of the lower leg and are held in place by small ligaments known as coronary ligaments. Both menisci are roughly "wedge-shaped", with the outer portion being thicker than the central portion. The outer portion also happens to be the only part of the meniscus that has a blood supply. The meniscus on the medial (inner) side of the knee is larger than the lateral (outer) meniscus. From top view, the medial meniscus is roughly "C" shaped, while the lateral meniscus forms almost a complete circle. The menisci are also attached to other structures in the knee. The MCL (medial collateral ligament) attaches to the medial meniscus, which is why injuries to these structures may occur at the same time. The MCL runs up the inside of the tibiofemoral joint. On the outside runs the LCL (lateral collateral ligament) which has no attachment to the lateral meniscus. The lateral meniscus does, however, attach to another structure called popliteus. Popliteus is a muscle that covers the back of the knee and helps "unlock" the knee from a fully straightened position. It is also thought to help pull the lateral meniscus out of the way during knee bending, so to avoid pinching and subsequent tearing of the meniscus.

Also see knee ligament injuries for further information on that topic.

FUNCTIONThe menisci in the knee have several functions. Firstly, the menisci serve to provide congruency at the knee joint. The top of the tibia (lower leg bone) is almost flat, and as a result does not provide a stable articular surface for the femur (thigh bone). The menisci add some depth to the tibial surface, which in turn serves to hold the ends of the femur in place.

The menisci also act as shock-absorbers in the knee. They provide some cushioning of forces directed upward or downward through the knee. This can diminish the load borne by the joints of the spine, pelvis and hip as well as those of the ankle and foot.

Nutrition of the knee joint is also assisted by the menisci. The repeated loading and unloading of the joint serves to lubricate and nourish the cartilage. This is extremely important because cartilage typically has no blood supply to nourish itself (except for the outer 1/3 of the cartilage).

InjuriesInjuries to the menisci are common with sports and activities involving twisting motions at the knee. There are several types of meniscus "tears", but they have little relevance here. It is important to note, however, that the location, size and type of tear will affect the healing of the injury. For example, tears in the the outer rim of the meniscus will typically heal better due to the good blood supply, while larger central tears may become more of a problem because the cartilage does not truly regenerate. Here, the roughened or torn portion of the cartilage may "smooth down" enough on it's own to no longer be a problem.

Symptoms of a meniscus injury may include swelling, increased temperature of the knee, pain almost anywhere in the knee, and potentially "locking" of the knee, or inability to fully straighten the knee. Some people will find ways to "unlock" the knee when this happens (ie: moving the knee a certain way to allow it to move freely). Meniscus injuries may be diagnosed clinically, but may require diagnostic imaging or arthroscopy to determine the extent of injury.

Arthroscopy is a form of joint surgery requiring very small incisions for the camera/arthroscope and other surgical instruments.

PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENTInitial treatment of a meniscus injury follows the P.R.I.C.E. formula of protection, rest, ice, elevation, and compression. Management of swelling and pain are the first priorities following a meniscus injury. Your physiotherapist may be able to help with swelling, increasing range of motion and decreasing pain in the early stages of rehabilitation.

As the inflammation decreases, your physiotherapist will continue to treat the pain and mobility, but more attention will be given to strengthening of the knee joint musculature. During activity, forces that are either experienced by or even created by one joint in the chain will affect the next one. This is why strengthening of the trunk, hip and lower leg are all very important as well.

In the later stages of rehabilitation, functional exercises should be carried out to ensure optimal return to activity. This may involve sport specific movements and drills. To increase stability before returning to activity, equipment such as balance boards and balls may be used as well.

You or your therapist may want to consult your doctor for diagnostic tests, referral to a specialist, or for medications to help with the pain and inflammation. Generally speaking, meniscus injuries take several weeks, and potentially months to heal. Again, the healing times for meniscal injuries are quite variable, depending on the type and extent of the damage.

If you require it, your physiotherapist will refer you to a specialist. This doctor, who specializes in orthopaedics, will also assess you and determine the possible need for surgery. The surgery may involve anything from excising the torn piece of meniscus, sewing the tear back together or even removing the meniscus altogether. Recovery from surgery often takes 3-6 weeks and involves pain and swelling control, as well as strengthening and range of motion. Your physiotherapist will help you achieve these goals.

Reprint Courtesy: [link]